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Urdu - The Origin And History Of The Language

Urdu - The Origin And History Of The Language

The time period Urdu derives from a Turkish word ordu which means camp or army. The Urdu language developed between the Muslim soldiers of the Mughals armies who belonged to various ethnicities like Turks, Arabs, Persians, Pathans, Balochis, Rajputs, Jats and Afghans. These soldiers lived in close contact with one another and communicated in numerous dialects, which slowly and gradually developed into present day Urdu. It is for this reason that Urdu can be referred to as Lashkari Zaban or language of the army.

During its development Urdu language additionally assumed numerous names like the term Urdu-e-Maullah that means the exalted army which was given by Emperor Shah Jahan and the time period Rekhta that means scattered (with Persian words) which was coined by the scholars for Urdu poetry.

History and Evolution of Urdu Language

Evolution and development of any language relies on the evolution and development of a society where that language is spoken. Various invasions and conquests on a place have an effect on the development of its language. Urdu isn't any exception as it additionally underwent various phases of development.

Urdu belongs to the Indo-Aryan household of languages. Urdu by origin is considered to be a descendent of Saur Senic Prakrit. The time period Prakrriti means root or basis. It is a later model of Sanskrit. As Prakrit language started to develop, it was influenced by Western Hindi dialects of Khari Boli, Brij Bhasa and Haryanvi.

With the approaching of Insha's Darya-e-Latafat*, a necessity was felt to differentiate Urdu with different languages particularly Hindi. It turned a Hindi-Urdu controversy and in consequence Khari Boli and Devanagari turned the identity of Indians while Urdu and Persian of Muslims. In this context, Persian and Arabic words replaced with Sanskrit served the aim of differentiating Hindi from Urdu.

Urdu emerged as a distinct language after 1193 AD - the time of the Muslims conquest. When the Muslims conquered this part of the continent, they made Persian the official and cultural language of India. Because of the amalgamation of local dialects and the language of the invaders - which was either Persian, Arabic and Turkish, a new language evolved which later turned Urdu. In the course of the Mughals reign, Urdu was spoken in palaces and court and till the top of the Mughal rule; Urdu was the official language of most of Mughal states. This was the time when Urdu had develop into Persianized and enriched with Persian words, phrases and even script and grammar. With the approaching of the British, new English words also turned part of the Urdu language. Many English words had been accepted in their real form while others have been accepted after some modifications.

At the moment, Urdu vocabulary incorporates approximately 70% of Persian words and the remaining are a mixture of Arabic and Turkish words. Nonetheless, there are additionally traces of the French, Portuguese and Dutch language in Urdu. But these influences are little.

Urdu was taken to other parts of the country by soldiers, saints and sufis and by the widespread people. On account of the political, social and cultural contacts amongst the individuals of various speech and dialects, a mixed form of language formed called 'Rekhta' (Urdu and Persian in blended form). Quickly people started to use the new language in their speech and in literature which resulted in the enrichment of Urdu language and literature.

Urdu Literature

The origin of Urdu literature dates back to the 13th century in India in the course of the Mughal rule. Some of the eminent earliest poets who made utilization of Urdu in his poetry is Amir Khusro who may be called the daddy of Urdu language. In literature, Urdu was normally used alongside side Persian. Mughal kings had been the nice patrons of artwork and literature and it was under their rule that Urdu language reached its zenith. There was a tradition of 'Sheri Mehfils' (poetic gatherings) in the kings' courts. Abul Fazal Faizi and Abdul Rahim Khankhana have been the famous Urdu poets of Mughal court. Likewise, Mirza Ghalib, Allama Iqbal, Hakim Momin, Ibrahim Zauq, Mir Taqi Mir, Sauda, Ibn-e-Insha and Faiz Ahmed Faiz have contributed to the evolution of Urdu language by means of their literary works.

It is certainly true that Hindi and Urdu are descendents of the identical language i.e. Prakrit, however the place the Hindi took influence from Sanskrit and adopted Devanagri script of writing, Urdu absorbed words from Persian, Turkish and Arabic languages and adopted Persian-Arabic script and Nastaliq calligraphic fashion of writing and emerged as a separate language. But beside frequent ancestry, the 2 languages are as completely different as can be. There are marked grammatical, phonological and lexical variations in both languages.

Urdu was additionally used as a device by the Muslims for freedom struggle and for creating awareness amongst Muslim communities in South Asia to unite under the banner of Independence from British Raj. For this, providers of Maulana Hali, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Allama Iqbal aren'table, who by their poetry and prose provoked the necessary spark in the lives of the Muslims. Urdu was chosen to turn into the nationwide language of Pakistan on the time of Independence from British. Urdu is now the nationwide language of Pakistan, spoken and understood completely by majority of the population.

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